Savanna Plants

Savanna Plants photo 10-21-14 2

Here are two lists of plants I’ve found growing under oak trees in areas that I think used to be savanna.  Some areas may have been more open – so it may be that some of the plants are prairie rather than savanna plants.  Some species may be woodland plants; they may have moved in once the savanna became more brushy and shaded.  It will be interesting to see which species do well now that  we’ve let in more light.

I’m only including desirable species – not weedy or invasive species,  and no trees or tall shrubs.

This first list is the species I find most often, in fairly large numbers, and in nearly every overgrown savanna we’ve worked on.

Amorpha canescens – Leadplant
Anemone virginiana – Tall Anemone
Antennaria neglecta – Field Pussytoes
Antennaria plantaginifolia – Plantain-leaved Pussytoes
Aquilegia canadensis – Wild Columbine
Andropogon gerardii – Big Bluestem
Asclepias exaltata – Poke Milkweed
Asclepias syriaca – Common Milkweed
Aster lateriflorus – Calico Aster
Aster sagittifolius – Arrow-leaved Aster
Carex pensylvanica – Pennsylvania Sedge
Cirsium altissimum – Tall Thistle
Elymus hystrix – Bottlebrush Grass
Eupatorium purpureum – Purple Joe-pye Weed
Fragaria virginiana – Wild Strawberry
Gallium boreale – Northern Bedstraw
Geranium maculatum – Wild Geranium
Hieracium kalmii – Canada Hawkweed
Lithospermum canescens – Hoary Puccoon
Monarda fistulosa – Monarda
Solidago speciosa – Showy Goldenrod
Viola sp. – Blue Violet

This is a more complete list – with all the plants I’ve ever found – that I can think of.

Adiantum pedatum – Maidenhair Fern
Amorpha canescens
– Leadplant
Amphicarpea bracteata – Hog Peanut
Andropogon gerardii – Big Bluestem
Anemone cylindrica – Thimbleweed
Anemone virginiana – Tall Anemone
Anemone quinquefolia – Wood Anemone
Antennaria neglecta – Field Pussytoes
Antennaria plantaginifolia – Plantain-leaved Pussytoes

Apocynum androsaemifolium – Dogbane

Apocynum cannabinum – Indian Hemp
Aquilegia canadensis – Wild Columbine
Aralia racemosa – American Spikenard
Asclepias exaltata – Poke Milkweed
Asclepias syriaca – Common Milkweed
Aster lateriflorus – Calico Aster
Aster oolentangiensis – Sky-blue Aster
Aster sagittifolius – Arrow-leaved Aster
Asplenium platyneuron – Ebony Spleenwort
Astragalus canadensis – Canada Milk-vetch
Botrychium dissectum – Dissected Grape-fern
Bouteloua curtipendula – Side-oats Grama
Bromus kalmii – Prairie Brome
Bromus latiglumis – Ear-leafed Brome
Calystegia spithamaea – Low Bindweed
Carex pensylvanica – Pennsylvania Sedge
Ceanothus americanus – New Jersey Tea
Cirsium altissimum – Tall Thistle
Cirsium discolor – Field Thistle
Coeloglossum viride – Frog Orchid

Commandra umbellata – Bastard Toadflax
Corallorhiza odontorhiza – Autumn Coralroot
Coreopsis palmata – Prairie Coreopsis
Cypripedium parviflorum – Yellow Lady’s Slipper
Desmodium canadense – Showy Tick-trefoil
Desmodium glutinosum – Pointed Tick-trefoil
Diphasiastrum digitatum – Trailing Ground Pine
Elymus hystrix – Bottlebrush Grass
Elymus riparius – Riverbank Wild-rye
Erigeron pulchellus – Robin’s Plantain

Eupatorium purpureum – Purple Joe-pye Weed
Euphorbia corollata – Flowering Spurge
Fragaria virginiana – Wild Strawberry
Galearis spectabilis – Showy Orchis

Gallium boreale – Northern Bedstraw
Gentiana alba – Cream Gentian

Gentiana quinquefolia – Stiff Gentian
Geranium maculatum – Wild Geranium
Gnaphalium obtusifolium – Sweet Everlasting
Goodyera pubescens – Downy Rattlesnake Plantain
Helianthemum bicknellii – Hoary Frostweed
Helianthus occidentalis – Western Sunflower
Helianthus strumosus – Pale-leaved Woodland Sunflower
Heuchera richardsonii – Prairie Alumroot
Hieracium kalmii – Canada Hawkweed
Hieracium scabrum – Rough Hawkweed

Hypericum pyramidatum – Great St. John’s Wort

Hypoxis hirsuta – Yellow Star Grass
Lechea sp. – Pinweed
Lespedeza capitata – Bush Clover
Liparis lilifolia – Purple Twayblade
Lithospermum canescens – Hoary Puccoon
Lobelia inflata – Indian Tobacco
Maianthemum racemosum – False Solomon’s Seal
Maianthemum stellatum – Starry False Solomon’s Seal
Monarda fistulosa – Monarda
Monotropa uniflora – Indian Pipe
Oenothera biennis – Evening Primrose
Onoclea sensibilis – Sensitive Fern
Oxalis violacea – Violet Wood-sorrel
Packera paupercula – Balsam Ragwort
Pedicularis canadensis – Wood Betony
Pellaea glabella – Smooth Cliff Brake

Physalis heterophylla – Clammy Ground Cherry
Polemonium reptans – Jacob’s Ladder
Polygala sanguinea – Field Milkwort
Polygala polygama – Purple Milkwort
Polygala verticillata – Whorled Milkwort
Polygonatum biflorum – Solomon’s Seal
Prenanthes alba – Lion’s Foot
Pteridium aquilinum – Bracken Fern
Pyrolla elliptica – Large-flowered Shinleaf
Ratibida pinnata – Yellow Coneflower
Ribes sp. – Gooseberry/Currant
Rosa sp. – Wild Rose
Rhus glabra – Smooth Sumac
Rhus hirta – Staghorn Sumac
Rubus sp. – Raspberry/Blackberry
Schizachyrium scoparium – Little Bluestem
Sisyrinchium campestre – Blue-eyed Grass
Solidago flexicaulis – Zig-zag Goldenrod
Solidago missouriensis – Missouri Goldenrod
Solidago speciosa – Showy Goldenrod
Solidago ulmifolia – Elm-leaved Goldenrod

Sorghastrum nutans – Indian Grass
Sporobolus heterolepis – Prairie Dropseed
Stipa spartea – Needle Grass
Taenidia integerrima – Yellow Pimpernel

Thalictrum thalictroides – Rue Anemone
Toxicodendron rydbergii – Western Poison-Ivy
Veronicastrum virginicum – Culver’s Root
Viola macloskeyi – Small White Violet

Viola x palmata – Early Blue Violet
Viola pedatifida – Prairie Violet
Viola pubescens – Yellow Violet
Viola sororia – Common Blue Violet
Zigadenus elegans – White Camas
Zizia aurea – Golden Alexanders

Vines:
Celastrus scandens – American Bittersweet
Clematis virginiana – Virgin’s Bower
Parthenocissus vitacea – Grape Woodbine
Vitis riparia – Frost Grape